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About Scotland

スコットランド I think that there are many people who know that Scotland is shown in blue in the map in the UK. Do you know the difference between Great Britain and Britain and the official name of Britain?
First of all, the difference between Great Britain and Britain is not very difficult. As shown in pink on the map, Wales + England is Britain and Britain + Scotland is Great Britain.
The official name of the UK is called United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. In the United Nations etc. the abbreviation United Kingdom is used as the country name. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs marks this country in Japanese as UK (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). I think that the country called the United Kingdom will not exist in diplomacy of Japan. And the embassy of this United Kingdom is labeled "British Embassy". If you think carefully, if written in the country name England derived Britain, I think that for Welsh and Scotland people it would be a problem that I can not think like my home name.
There are many people who are proud of their country in Scotland. Let 's not call it as British.

Scottish patron saint (St. Andrew) and "national flag" (St. Andrew's Cross)

スコットランド国旗 Scotland also has the "national flag". As shown in the figure on the right, it is called St. Andrew's Cross with a blue letter with a white batten attached.
As you know, St. Andrew is one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ and is a patron saint of Scotland, but why was he born in the Middle East became a patron saint of Scotland and the design of the flag was blue Is it a white batten in the letter?

St. Andrew is a man around Israel under the rule of the Roman Empire, originally a fisherman with Peter of his brother. I went to Russia from Romania now, and finally passed away in Greece. Therefore, it is also a patron saint of Russia, Romania and Greece. In other words, he has never been to Scotland during his lifetime.

The state of crucifixion of Saint Andere (from Wikipedia English version) Before Christianity became the state religion of Rome, people who tried to propagate Christianity and that were subject to crackdown, St. Andrew was also caught in Greece and attached to a cross of X type and executed (see right figure : Saint Andrew 's crucifixion / Wikipedia English version), it was buried in that place. St. Andrew's Cross comes from the form of the cross of the × shape used for crucification at this time.

Three hundred years later, Roman religion has become Christianity, emperor Constantine attempts to move St. Andrew's remains to Constantinople. However, the monk 's regulus listens to the angel' s order to move to 'the end of the earth' in order to keep the remains secure in dreams. At that time, I moved part of the remains to Ireland or Scotland, which was considered to be the most out of the frontier of the remote area, and we built a chapel in the present St. Andrew and buried a part of the remains. This place was helped by the accident that the ship where the monk Regulus had a part of the remains bore wrecked in St. Andrew neighborhood.

More than 400 years passed in 832. Scotland was the coalition kingdom of Celtic ethnic groups such as Pict and Scott. The King of those days was Pict's Oengus II. In the northern part of England, there was a kingdom north sambaland established by Germanic Angles. That angle tribe attacked Scotland. Oengus II instantly responds and becomes a war.

St. Andrew comes to Oengus II 's dream the night prior to the battle. If you make me a patron saint of Scotland, I will try to win this fight. To my surprise it came to my dreams like "patron selling by patron saints". The next day, Oengus II pledges to St. Andrew in the fighting prayers that if you can win this war you worship you as a patron saint of Scotland. And St. Andrew again came into his dream and promised Scottish victory. The next day you will find X type of white clouds in the blue sky before battle. The Scottish Army who saw this felt asylum of St. Andrew and, despite being disadvantageously numerically, won this battle.

St. Andrew really protected Scotland and Oengus II established St. Andrew as the patron saint of Scotland as promised. Furthermore, the white cloud batten floating in the blue sky thinks that St. Andrew represents an X type cross that was made into a halo, and declares the flag of the white batten design as the national flag St. Andrew's Cross in the blue ground That is why.

I think that you can see why the Scottish Patron Saint is St. Andrew and that the design is a white batten in the blue ground.

Scottish national flower

Thistle flowers
(From Wikipedia English version)
Order of the Thistle
Order of the Thistle
(From Wikipedia English version)

Do you know the national flower of Japan? Since there is no law stipulated, again, Japanese flowers are said to be cherry blossoms and the imperial family, so there seems to be a chrysanthemum theory. So, what is the national flower of Scotland? This is thistle (thistle in English). This is because in Scotland who suffered from the invasion of Viking from the 8 th century to the 13 th century, the invading Viking soldier stepped on barefooted thistle with bare feet and gave a loud voice out of the pain, the Scottish soldier It is said that it came from noticing the invasion and helping many soldiers.

In fact, this battle was battle with the Scottish king Alexander III who was attacked by the army led by Norwegian Harcourt IV, Largs on October 2, 1263 (West of Glasgow in Scotland It is said that it was a battle of the beach at the seaside). Haakon IV sent armies to rule themselves again that Scotland had dominated the control of the Hebrides that were dominated by the early Biking attacks. Unlike the legend, the actual battle is different from the legend but the Norwegian army wins, but with skillful negotiations by Alexander III, the Hebrides islands belongs to Scotland and formally settled, the Scottish territory was protected. For this reason, it is said that it became such a legend.

And it was in the 15th century that Scotland king James III (reigned from 1452 - 1488) made the thistle into the Scottish national flowers in fact.

Also, the highest Order of Scotland is Order of The Thistle. The current official name is The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, but who first enacted it? There seems to be no confirmed yet because of various arguments. It is clear that this modern order system was established in the era of James VII as King of Scotland and James II as King King of England. However, since this age has existed for the first time, it was the Araius that we decided at the beginning, there is a theory that it was the first time to send to the Frank Kingdom Carl King in commemoration of the alliance in 809, in fact Carl the Great He seems to be a powerful theory because he became a guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland. In addition, there seems to be a theory that Jesm III who decided thistle as national flower may have decided this medal first.

Scottish "national anthem"

Formally, since Scotland is not an independent country, I think that there are many people who feel that it is strange that there is an "national anthem". Actually, that's right, God save the Queen (King) is known as the national anthem of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland including Scotland.

When was this God save the Queen (King) made? Knowing that, it is easy for Scotland to understand that there are many people who have feelings that it is difficult to accept this "national anthem". This song was made in 1744. Although "Bonnie Prince" Charles flew in Scotland the following 1745, it was transmitted in 1744 that the landing was failed. When he insisted on the Scottish throne and proceeded towards London with the Highland clans, in England this song became popular and singing before defending the king of England was the God save the It was King.

Therefore, the following phrases will appear in the lyrics of number 6 that is no longer sung.

Rebellious Scots to crush,
God save the King.
WipipediaJapanese version(女王陛下万歳より)

However, although this lyrics comes in books published in 1837, it does not come in books published in 1745, so there are also theories that this part of lyrics was not sung when Jacobite 's turbulence.

Well, even for Scottish formal national anthem, let's give an example of what happens when singing songs with such a background as the national anthem. If the Scottish national team of football gets a game in Scotland, there is always a national anthem singing. Actually God save the Queen has been sung, but it seems that the booing did not stop ringing from the venue, as it was singing the national anthem of his country.

This situation continued, the national team of the rugby adopted the song "Flower of Scotland" made by Scottish folk group, The Colise as the offical antem, and since 1993 the soccer national team also started singing this song As singing as an offical antem, the booing when singing national anthem from the stadium ceased to exist.

Then, do not you wonder what kind of lyrics is this "Flower of Scotland"? That's how it goes back from Jacobite 's turbulence in 1745 That material is taken in the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 when Robert I broke Edward II of England in 431 years.

Let's see the number 1 lyrics

O Flower of Scotland,
When will we see
Your like again
That fought and died for
Your wee bit hill and glen.
And stood against him,
Proud Edward's army,
And sent him homeward
To think again.から)

Do not you think it is amazing? Even though I still keep thinking about 700 years ago. If you can see the lyrics of 2nd and 3rd again, I think that the strong feeling will be conveyed.
There seems to be a claim that this song should be another song because there is discussion that this lyric is overkill. So the above site also contains the results of the survey made in 2006, which songs are suitable for the Scottish national anthem.

Song name Vote rate(%)
Flower of Scotland 41%
Scotland the Brave 29%
Highland Cathedral 16%
Is There for Honest Poverty 8%
Scots Wha Hae 6%

Let's say that Flower of Scotland and Scotland the Brave compete for the Scottish anthem seat with a difference of about 10 points.
Perhaps it will take some time before the official "national anthem" is enacted.